Generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy using external source. It is important to know that it does not generate electricity by itself but it uses its mechanical energy, provided by engine, to ignite magnetic force present in its winding. Due to rotation of machine, electric charge is produced which is supplied to run appliances. It is very similar to a water pump which is used to supply water rather than producing it.
What is Principle of Generator?
Generator works on Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. In 1831-32 Faraday stated that If we place moving conductor in a static magnetic field it induces charge in other winding in such a way it induces current in other winding.
Major Components of Generators
Generator consist of different major components which have different function in a compact generator system. Major components of Generators are explained given below:
Engine of Generators:
This is bone of contention of any generator. It is an engine which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy. In this process, 40% energy electrical energy is produced. Meanwhile 60% of the fuel has been wasted in the form of Exhaust and radiation.
4 Stroke engine means it consist on 4 different strokes named as Intake, Compression, Power and Exhaust. During Intake Stroke, Intake valve allows air to enter from atmosphere to cylinder. Once intake valve is closed now compression stroke starts. it compress air in cylinder to 12:1 to 22:1 ratios. When Air is compressed it heats up air molecules and temperature in cylinder increased. When fuel injector injects fuels in the cylinder which evaporates due to heat, hence energy is power produced which forces piston to lower down and this energy is used to rotate the rotor or wheel in a complex mechanical mechanism. Combustion of fuel produces gases and caused high temperature and pressure. The exhaust valve opens during exhaust stroke which allows smooth disposal of gases into the exhaust system.
Fuel system of Generators:
The fuel injection system is a heart of the diesel engine. Once it is pressurized and injected, the system forces it into air which is compressed to high pressure in the combustion chamber.
However, The Fuel sytsem of generator consists of:
- fuel injection pump – pressurizes fuel to high pressure
- injection nozzle – it injects fuel into the cylinder
- high-pressure pipe – sends fuel to the injection nozzle
- fuel filter – filtrates the fuel
- feed pump – sucks fuel from the fuel tank
Furthermore, Some kinds of fuel tanks also have a fuel sedimentor at the bottom of the filter to separate water content from the fuel.