What is Fire Alarm System? Its Types, Component and Schematic Diagram.

A fire alarm system is a system that detects smoke, heat, or flames and alerts building occupants to the danger in order to protect their lives. 

Most buildings have fire alarm systems installed to detect and alert people incase of any danger. These systems are designed to detect the presence of smoke and/or heat, and then activate an alarm to alert occupants. The alarm is often audible, but sometimes visual alarms are used as well.

Fire Alarm Types , Conventional Vs Addressable:

On the basis of application, commonly Fire alarms types are: Conventional System and Addressable System. Both systems are used as per the requirement of the premises. For some locations, Conventional system is recommended while for many applications it is strongly recommended to install an addressable fire alarms system.

Conventional Fire Alarms System

Conventional fire alarm system is used for small spaces like dwelling units, small offices and easy to access locations etc. It is cost effective solution as compared to addressable but can be used only for small applications. It detects only faulty loop and can’t detect exact location of that device which initiating any kind of alert. So that is why it is recommended to use only for small applications.

Addressable Fire Alarms System:

However, Addressable systems are recommended in large buildings, offices, stores, and industries. In an addressable system each notification appliance has its unique IP address so it can be track and monitored easily. It also indicate the exact location of the initiating device which helps to rectify it quickly.

Components of a Fire Alarm System:

Any Fire alarm system consist of three type of components: Detection equipment, Notification appliances and Control Unit.

Detection Equipment:

All those devices which are used to detect fire, smoke, heat through different sensing mechanisms are called detection devices. Most common detection devices are Smoke Detectors, Heat Detectors, Multi Detectors, Beam Detectors.

Smoke Detector:

smoke detector is a device that used to sense smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Smoke detectors are usually housed in plastic enclosures, typically disk type shaped around 150 mm (6 in) in dia and 25 mm (1 in) thick, but shape and size could vary. Smoke can be detected either optically (photoelectric) or by a physical process (ionization). However, Detectors may use one or both sensing methods as per their application. Moreover, Sensitive alarms can be used to detect and deter smoking in banned areas. Smoke detectors in large commercial and industrial buildings are usually connected to a centralized fire alarm system.