WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEUTRAL AND EARTH?
People often have confusion regarding the difference between neutral and earth. Here, we will explain it to have clarification for your understanding. However, neutral and earth are two different things that need to be understood.
Neutral is a point which is connected at common point of star winding of a Transformer. It is also called ground. In three phase balance load ideally it should have zero current but it is not the case practically. It has some amount of fault current which travels in neutral and moves to the ground through neutral point. In Single phase load it provides completion path to any circuit.
Earth in (AC power) electrical wiring system is a conductor that provides a low-impedance path to the earth to prevent hazardous voltages from appearing on equipment. Under normal conditions, a earthing conductor does not carry current.
If you look at this figure 2, live wire and neutral wire is connected to transformer and running towards a distribution board. This is system is earthed properly.
If any body who touches live metal body of the DB. He will not get shock because earthing systems provides lowest resistance path to ground while internal resistance of the person will be high. Thus, a person will not get shock.
If Metal body of Distribution Box is not connected with earth system. Eventually, a person will get shock when it touches the DB incase of its live contact with wire.
It is that wire which we use for safety only. Consequently, Without this wire, every electrical appliance will work. but in case of fault, it gives shock to a person who touches its body. Earthing system is one of the important parts of electrical systems.